Wednesday, 2 November 2011

Uses of Computers in different Fields

             Our daily encounters with and dependence upon technology is almost invisible as it takes the shape of electronic climate control system, wireless communication systems such as phones and pagers, automatic tellers to dispense money. Magnetically striped cards to facilitate consumer transactions, cable and satellite television, auto mobiles and mass transit. Free trade agreements have led to globalization of commerce and scientific debate about global warming and the effect of our modern use of fossil fuels, nuclear weapons, chemical warfare, and contamination of food and water supplies. In the past several decades we have gone from space exploration to space colonization, intelligent machines, and virtual reality that will lead us into the next millennium. The jobs of the future may not even exist today. Let us see the use of computer technology in our daily life.

Uses of Computers in Business:
            The business must understand and adapt in the new source of competitive advantage connecting to the people of the core competencies and customer interaction on global scale, globe market place. In the globe business world, globe interaction is very important. In every organization there are major business processes that provide the critical tasks such that customer bills, analyzing sales of various products in different locations etc. in business, computers are used as given:

  1. Marketing: Marketing applications provide information about the organization’s products, its distribution system, its advertising and personal selling activities, and its pricing strategies. Marketing applications help managers to develop strategies that combine the four major elements of marketing: Products, Promotions, Place and Price.
  2. London Stock Exchange
      Stock Exchange:
      Stock markets around the world are in transition. On some trading floors, paper is disappearing. In fact, the trading floor itself is disappearing in some places because many stock markets lunched the computerized system that makes it possible for stockbrokers to do all their trading electronically. Brokers interconnected through a data communication network submit and receive bids using their computer workstations or interconnected computer display screens, where brokers match buyers with sellers, so that neither trading floor nor slips of paper are necessary.
    1. Banks: Computerized banking have provides several benefits such as save the time and convenience for customer. International banking and the abilities to handle trading in multiple currencies are critical for international trade. The cheques are read by MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader, a device used to allow the data on cheques to be read by machines). Banks use mainframe computer to maintain their customer accounts by dealing with the transaction generated as a result of withdrawals and deposits. Some banks are used to operate a network of ATMs (Automated Teller Machine). Although some international retail purchasing can be done by giving a credit card number.
    2. Departmental Store: People at the store level, cashiers enter sales data into sale terminals by waving a bar code scanner across a package’s bar-coded prices and stock numbers. Bar codes are read by bar code readers, photoelectric scanners that translate the bar code symbols into digital forms. The price of a particular item is set with the store’s computer and appears on the sales-clerk’s point of sale terminal and on our receipt. Store and department manager who received report of store and department sales and inventory levels are indirect end users. Record of sales are input to the store’s computer and used for accounting, restocking store inventory, and weeding out products that sell well. A security VCR (video cassette recorder) is widely used in department stores and other locations where aesthetics are priority. It is virtually impossible to tell where the camera is pointed, which makes it difficult for would-be camera avoiders to stay out of the camera’s view range; that are equipped with a camera, and lens can be augmented with dummy cameras. VCRs use the tapes, hook up the same way, and have all of the standard features of today’s consumer VCRs. Most importantly, they are just as easy to use. Security cameras are everywhere these days and the reason is quite clear; there is simply no better way to monitor home or business operations and ensures safety.
    3. Office Automation: Office Automation (OA) refers to the movements toward automating office tasks. An office where workers performs different tasks. The management and administrative tasks performed in an office five general categories of activities like decision-making, data manipulation, document handling, communication, and storage. Offices have used advance computer technologies to perform various tasks in an office system such as for document management system, message handling system, and office support systems.
    4. Document Management System (DMS): DMS include word processing, desktop publishing, reprographic, image processing, and archival storage applications. Word processing enable documents to be created and edited electronically as well as help to produce high quality memos, letters, proposals, reports, newsletters and brochures etc. which are used to send business community. Desktop publishing enables to make document in attractive form by the use of photos, artwork, graphical illustrations etc. spreadsheet is software package used to create a table of columns and rows used by people responsible for tracking revenues, expenses, profits, loses, statistical, mathematical and logical processing etc. Reprographics is the process of reproducing multiple copies of a document. Image processing allow document to be scanned and stored in image oriented data bases.
    5. Message-handling system: It enables to send messages or documents from one location to other location through facsimile (FAX), electronic-mail (E-Mail), Voice Mail etc.
    6. Office Support System enables: It to coordinate and manage the activities of work group. Groupware and desktop organizers are some examples of office support systems.


                E-commerce (electronic commerce) describes the buying, selling, and exchanging of products, services, and information via computer network. The term e-commerce as describe 

    E Commerce
      transactions, conducted between business partners. There are many application of e-commerce, such as home banking, shopping in electronic malls, buying stocks, finding a job, conducting an auction, collaborating electronically with business partners around the globe, marketing & advertising and providing customer service. There are several types e-commerce like collaborative commerce, business to commerce, consumer to commerce, and Mobile commerce etc. Mobile satellite communications also promise to extend the global reach of voice, data and other services. The following services of e-commerce are used most frequently in e-business.

      1. Electronic Mail (E-mail): The e-mail is a service that transports text messages (with attachments of videos, audio, documents) from sender to one or more receivers via computer. Voice mail systems capture, store, and transmit spoken messages.
      2. Video Conferencing: Video conferencing is a type of conferencing in which video transmission over networks. It is an advance form of teleconferencing. Video conferencing should provide a complete simulation of a normal meeting environment, enabling both parties to see, hear and present material, just as if they were in the same room. It can speed up business process and procedures in the same way that the fax and e-mail have revolutionized the way we share information. Tangible benefits are most easily related to actual cost savings. The most obvious quantifiable saving is the cost of travel and the cost of the time wasted during travel.
      3. Electronic Shopping (E-Shopping): Almost all businesses now have website that allow Internet users to buy their goods or services. Shopping can take place using a computer at home, from work or at a cyber café and e-shop can be anywhere in the world working 24hours a day.
      4. Electronic Banking: An electronic banking is also known as cyber-banking or online includes various banking activities conducted from home, a business, or on the road instead of a physical bank location.

                  Computers are used to control manufacturing system and continuous running of the machinery. These are also help in monitoring temperature, pressure, and also check the quality and accuracy, measurement needed in the manufacturing process.
      Robots: A robot is an automatic programmable machine that moves and performs mechanical tasks. Robots are used in hundreds of applications from assembling and spray-painting cars, carrying out maintenance on overhead power cables, to testing blood samples, outer space experimental programs, in artificial satellites, and radioactive environments etc. robots can work in environment that are hazardous to humans, it can perform repetitive and boring task continuously without a break at high level of accuracy than human.

      CAD (Computer Aided Design) & CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture)
                  CAD (Computer Aided Design) are used for display designs and build production prototypes in software, test them as a computer object according to following given parameters.

      • Compile Parts and quantities lists.
      • Outline production and assembly procedures
                  Transmit the final different applications some of them like designing new car or aircraft, bridge and building. Making changes to a design requires a large number of complex calculations. A CAD system needs a high resolution monitors, input devices (mouse, keyboard, graphic tables, and scanners etc) and output devices (printers and plotters). CAD use often has the capability of displaying a three dimensional object and speedily rotating it in any direction using controls on the keyboard.
      CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) is used to control all the part of a manufacturing process. CAM software uses digital design output, such as that from a CAD system, to directly control production machinery. CAM systems are manufactured following goods.

      • Product can be made very accurately and consistently.
      • Around the clock production is much cheaper.
      • A product’s design can be modified without the need of bringing production to a computer standstill.

                  A computer simulation is a special type of computer model, which recreates a system that might exist outside the computer. Simulations are often used to train people how to deal with situations that are too difficult, expensive or dangerous to recreate and practice using for real. For example a flight simulation, which is used to train, pilots how to deal with situation that would be expensive and dangerous to practice using a real aircraft. A flight simulator consists of a working replica of the flight deck of an airplane.

                  The computers are commonly used in some area of medical fields such as laboratories, researches, scanning, monitoring, pharmacy etc. Which are helping the doctor to diagnose an illness.

      • Patient Monitoring: Computers are used in hospitals to monitoring critically ill patients in intensive care units. The patients have sensors attached to them, which detect changes in heart rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, breathing and brain activity if any readings dislocate or reached misbalancing level, the computer activates an alarming device to create sound and alerts the medical staff. The data is also logged and used to analyze the changes in a patient’s condition over a period of time.
      • Patients Records: Computerized databases are used to store information about patients, doctors, medicines and other chemicals and equipments. Storing information in proper order to provide the convenient way of arrangements for hospital staff. It is making easy to organize records than paper based records that are not constantly following patients around the hospital. For example if a patient is admitted in one ward but being seen by a consultant and receiving treatment on other parts of the hospital, their details can be viewed and updated at any terminal in the hospital’s LAN network.                 The computerized databases are used to help match patients who are waiting for organ transplants such as a new kidney, liver or heart with suitable organs from donors.
      • Diagnosis: It will come as no surprise that hospitals and clinics use computers to keep records and generate invoices. One common use of computer is to scan the body and sensors detect that how much patient’s body have affected to any type of cancer. Actually the body scanner helps the doctor to raise over the patient; it displays an image that enables physicians to look beneath the patient’s skin. As the scanner passes over the patient, it displays an image of bone and tissue structure on a computer screen.

      Airline System:
                  In airline system, computers are used to control passenger aircrafts and vehicles. Early aircraft were controlled by moving parts attached to the controls using cables. In modern, fly-by-wire system, electronic signals from the cockpit are sent to that adjusts the flight surfaces. Computer is embedded in the pilot’s or driver’s controls. It is linked up among different cities and gives full information about its flight and seat reservation.

                  Computers are used in colleges to provide the methods of teaching in different ways. The computer education is very familiar and rapidly increasing the graph of computer students. There are number of methods in which educational institutions can use computer to educate the students. Much computer-based educational softwares are available, which students can learn to read, to count, or to speak a foreign language. Software that combines the thrills of games with real information content is becoming most popular. Some organizations are using information technology in their employee training programs.

      • Computer Aided Learning (CAL): Computer Aided Learning could be described as the use of information technology to assist in the teaching and enhance learning process. Information technology may be able to aid us in reducing the time spent on creation and maintenance of teaching materials (power point presentations, Lectures in word documents, Flash media files etc). It is also reducing the administrative load associated with teaching and research.
      • Computer Based Training (CBT): Computer based training is a difficult term to adequately define because it encompasses various modes of instruction and has evolved from the simplest definition, an interactive learning experience between the learner and computer in which the computer provides the majority of the stimulus, the learner must respond, and the computer analyzes the response and provides feedback to the learner. Computer-based training is about using computers to help train people. It is not necessarily about training people to use computers. Computer based training works, compared with traditional techniques; it can bring many additional benefits to any organization, their training department and their students. For example:

      1. Students can readily acquire new skills at their own pace and at times that do not conflict with their work schedules.
      2. Training times can usually be reduced.
      3. Retention of course material is usually greater.
      4. Interactive, visually stimulating, easily absorbed and easily available material encourages students to undertake training.
      5. Planning and timetabling problems can be reduced or eliminated.
      6. Essential skills can be taught and refreshed whenever and whenever needed.
      7. The quality and consistency of the training material of students, locally or at remote places.
      8. Timely and high quality training on demand leads to increased efficiency.
                  Compared to traditional classroom training methods, students using computer based training absorb similar material faster and retain more of the information they are taught.

      Weather Forecasting:
                  Computer based weather forecasting depends on accurate collection of data from weather stations, airports, satellites, different sensitive devices all around the world. Computer depends on building a model of hot, cold air, dry and humid air interaction, and how this is interactions are effected by land and sea temperature, season and so on. Once this is done, the data is collected on atmospheric phenomena over a region. The computer model then generates a forecast of how the air will change. The necessary parameters can never be measured with total accuracy and it is impossible to make a perfect representation of all the factors that affect weather. Some businesses, however, are so dependent on the weather that they need constantly updated information. SPARCO weather forecasting department offer analysis of live weather data, and provides help to make business decisions based on weather forecasting.

                  Nowadays people have computers at home and it has become a necessity electrical home appliance used in home. Children play games; keep track of the stamp collections, draw pictures, play music, view movies and do some sort of reading and writing according to their needs. A typical domestic system consists of a PC with a relatively small hard disk; printer, modem and DVD-Writer Drive etc. people can utilize computers for keeping records, making home budgets, using electronic mail and internet services to learn and increase their knowledge. The uses of microprocessor technology in manufacturing of electronic home appliances like microwave, air-condition, washing machine, sewing machine etc have completely changed our way of life.


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